Courtenay, William

Courtenay, William
Courtenay, William
Archbishop of Canterbury, born in the parish of St. Martin's, Exeter, England, c. 1342; died at Maidstone, 31 July, 1396

Catholic Encyclopedia. . 2006.

Courtenay, William
    William Courtenay
     Catholic_Encyclopedia William Courtenay
    Archbishop of Canterbury, born in the parish of St. Martin's, Exeter, England, c. 1342; died at Maidstone, 31 July, 1396; was the son of Hugh Courtenay, Earl of Devon, and Margaret, daughter of Humphrey Bohun, Earl of Hereford. He studied at Oxford, where he took the degree of D.C.L. In 1367 he was elected chancellor of the university. On this occasion the university successfully resisted the Bishop of Lincoln's claim to the right of confirming its choice, and later Courtenay obtained from Urban V a Bull declaring a chancellor's election valid without the confirmation of the diocesan. After holding prebends in the churches of Exeter, Wells, and York, he was elected Bishop of Hereford and consecrated, 17 March, 1370. As bishop his support was given to the Prince of Wales and Bishop Wykeham against the anti-clerical movement led by John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, and later his efforts to suppress the Lollards were unceasing. In the Convocation of 1373 he strongly opposed the granting of a subsidy to the king until the latter should try to remedy the evils then afflicting the Church. Courtenay was transferred to the See of London, 12 Sept., 1375. In 1377 Pope Gregory XI issued a Bull of excommunication against the Florentines, and Courtenay published it at Paul's Cross. The result was that the Florentines in London were attacked by the populace; the magistrates had to interfere, and the king extended his protection to the foreigners. Courtenay was accused of violating the law by publishing the Bull. When called upon to retract what he had published, his answer was made through an official, who declared from the pulpit that the bishop's words had been misunderstood, and there the matter ended. When the Convocation was summoned in 1377, the archbishop, in the interests of John of Gaunt, omitted to summon the Bishop of Winchester. Courtenay protested against this and succeeded in getting Wykeham's rights recognized. Then followed his attempts to repress the Lollards, and Wyclif was cited to appear before the archbishop at St. Paul's. Wyclif came accompanied by John of Gaunt, who insisted upon a seat being provided for the accused; an altercation ensued which resulted in the court breaking up in confusion. Courtenay's authority alone restrained the citizens from using violence towards Lancaster. Again, in obedience to the pope, 18 Dec., he summoned Wyclif, but nothing came of the summons, and the Lollards continued to increase in numbers and influence. Some think that about this time the pope offered to create Courtenay a Cardinal; whether this was so or not, he was never raised to that dignity, but on 30 July, 1381, he became Archbishop of Canterbury. Then followed his appointment to the chancellorship of the kingdom 10 Aug., 1382, an office which he shortly afterwards resigned (18 Nov., 1382).
    Urged by Parliament he again turned his attention to the Lollards, calling a council which condemned their heretical opinions. Rigge, the Chancellor of Oxford and a leading Lollard, retracted and sued for pardon on his knees, but on his return to the university continued as before. The Oxford Lollards were finally brought to submission on 18 Nov., when the recantation of their leaders was received at St. Frideswide's. The archbishop then obtained a statute commanding sheriffs and other officers of the king to imprison heretics when certified as such by a bishop. Though this law was repealed the next year, he still had the royal sanction allowing bishops to detain heretics in their own prisons. After the subjugation of Oxford he turned to Leicester (1389), placed the town under an interdict, and in the end received the recantation of the leaders. About 1382 he began a general visitation of his province and met with much opposition; his interference was appealed against by the Bishops of Exeter and Salisbury, though both finally submitted. The Benedictine abbots also organized a strong opposition to his proposed visitation of Gloucester College, Oxford (1389); on his arrival he was treated with due respect, but they so firmly refused to acknowledge his right that he abandoned his design. Though a strong defender of the rights of the Church in England, he was always true and loyal to the pope. He so fearlessly condemned the extravagance of the king that he once (1385) had to take refuge in Devonshire to escape the royal anger. When the relations between king and Parliament became so strained as almost to lead to war, it was Courtenay who acted as mediator and averted the danger. He was first buried at Maidstone, where he had founded the College of St. Mary and All Saints; afterwards his body was removed to Canterbury and buried, in the king's presence, at the feet of the Black Prince, near the shrine of St. Thomas.
    Munimenta Academica, ed. ANSTEY (London, 1868), I, 229; Fasciculi Zizoniorum, ed. SHIRLEY (London, 1858), xxix, 272-5, 304-9, 356, 493: HOOK, Lives of Archbishops of Canterbury (London, 1860-73), IV, 315-98; STUBBS, Constitutional History of England (London, 1857-80), II, 428-38, 460-88; III, 330, 356; FOXE, Acts and Monuments (London, 1684) I, 495-500; GREEN, History of the English People (London, 1895), II, 339-46.
    G.E. HIND.
    Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter Dedicated to the Immaculate Heart of the Blessed Virgin Mary

The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII. — New York: Robert Appleton Company. . 1910.

Catholic encyclopedia.

Игры ⚽ Поможем написать реферат

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Courtenay, William — ▪ archbishop of Canterbury born c. 1342, , near Exeter, Devon, Eng. died July 31, 1396, Maidstone, Kent       archbishop of Canterbury, leader of the English church and moderating influence in the political disputes of King Richard (Richard III)… …   Universalium

  • Courtenay, William — (1875 1933)    Born in Worcester, Massachusetts, Courtenay made his acting debut in a Ten Nights in a Barroom touring company in 1892. Within the year he secured an engagement with Milton and Dolly Nobles, and soon distinguished himself enough to …   The Historical Dictionary of the American Theater

  • William Courtenay — Infobox Archbishop of Canterbury Full name = William Courtenay birth name = consecration = translated 30 July 1381 began=unknown term end = 31 July 1396 predecessor = Simon Sudbury successor = Thomas Arundel birth date = death date = 31 July 1396 …   Wikipedia

  • William Courtenay, 9th Earl of Devon — William Kitty Courtenay, 9th Earl of Devon (c. 1768 May 26, 1835), was the youngest son of William Courtenay, ( de jure 8th Earl of Devon) 2nd Viscount Courtenay and his wife Frances Clack. He was baptized on August 30, 1768.Born into a family of …   Wikipedia

  • William Courtenay — (* 1342 bei Exminster, Devon; † 31. Juli 1396 in Maidstone, Kent) war Erzbischof von Canterbury und Lordkanzler. Außerdem war er Bischof von Hereford und London. William Courtney entstammte der Adelsfamilie Courtenay. Seine Eltern waren Hugh… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • William Courtenay (disambiguation) — William Courtenay may refer to:*William Courtenay, (1342 – 1396), English prelate, Archbishop of Canterbury *William Courtenay, 1st Earl of Devon *William Courtenay, 9th Earl of Devon *William Courtenay, 11th Earl of Devonee also*William Courtney …   Wikipedia

  • William Courtenay, 1st Earl of Devon — (1475 ndash; 9 June, 1511) was the son of Sir Edward Courtenay, 1st Earl of Devon and Elizabeth Courtenay. He married Catherine of York the sixth daughter of Edward IV of England and Elizabeth Woodville. William and Catherine had three children:… …   Wikipedia

  • Courtenay, Florida — Courtenay, an unincorporated community on Merritt Island in Brevard County, Florida, United States. It is part of the Palm Bay–Melbourne–Titusville Metropolitan Statistical Area. Courtenay was settled in the 1870s and 1880s by people from… …   Wikipedia

  • William Courtenay — William Courtenay, Kitty, de niño. William Kitty Courtenay, noveno conde de Devon nació en el año 1768 y falleció el 26 de mayo de 1835. Fue el hijo menor de William Courtenay, octavo Jarl de Devon y de su esposa Frances Clack. Fue bautizado el… …   Wikipedia Español

  • William H. Peck — William Henry Peck was a successful Southern novelist and writer.BiographyWilliam Henry Peck was born December 30, 1830 in the Sand Hill section of Richmond County, Georgia near Augusta. He was the son of Samuel Hopkins Peck, a merchant in… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”