The breastplate worn by the high priest in the Old Testament

Catholic Encyclopedia. . 2006.

     Catholic_Encyclopedia Pectoral
    ("pectoral of judgment").
    The original meaning of the Hebrew term has been lost, and little light is thrown upon it by the early translations. The prevailing equivalent in the Sept. is logion; the Vulgate has rationale, whence the literal "rational" of the Douai version; the rendering in the Authorized Version is "breastplate".
    In the minute directions given for the distinctive official dress of the High Priest in Exodus, xxviii, a section belonging to the priestly code (cf. also Exodus, xxxix, 8-21), special prominence is given to the breastplate or pectoral. The divergent description of the same recorded by Josephus ("Antiq.", III, vii, 5 and "Bell." V, v, 7) is considered less reliable. The main reason of the importance attached to the construction of the pectoral seems to be the fact that it was the receptacle of the sacred oracular lot, the mysterious Urim and Thummim, a consideration which renders probable the tentative etymological signification of the original term proposed by Ewald ("Antiquities of Israel", 294), viz., "the pouch of the Oracle". From Exodus we learn that the material employed was the same substantially as for the ephod, viz., gold, blue, purple, and scarlet on a ground of fine twined linen, which are the finest and most artistic textile fabrics (cf. also Ecclus., xlv). The form of the pectoral was a square made by the folding in two of the material measuring a cubit in length and half a cubit in breadth. Into this square were fitted by means of gold settings four rows of precious stones, three in a row. On each jewel was inscribed the name of one of the twelve tribes of Israel, whose memory was thus borne continually before the Lord by the High Priest in his official functions (see Exodus, xxviii, 29).
    Besides the ordinary Commentaries on the Book of Exodus, see Ancessi, L'Egypte et Mo=95se (Paris, 1875), chap: Les Vétements les Grande Pr=90tre; KENNEDY in HASTINGS, Dict, of the Bible, s. v. Breastplate of the High Priest; BRAUN, Vest. Sacerd. Heb. (Amsterdam, 1680).
    Transcribed by M. Donahue

The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII. — New York: Robert Appleton Company. . 1910.

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  • pectoral — pectoral, ale, aux [ pɛktɔral, o ] adj. et n. m. • 1355; lat. pectoralis, de pectus « poitrine » I ♦ Placé sur la poitrine. 1 ♦ Qui décore la poitrine. Liturg. Croix pectorale d un évêque. 2 ♦ N. m. Ornement appliqué sur l aube d un prêtre. ♢… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • pectoral — PECTORÁL, Ă, pectorali, e, adj., s.n. I. adj. 1. Din regiunea pieptului, de la piept. 2. Care se foloseşte ca remediu în bolile de piept. Ceai pectoral. II. s.n. 1. Pieptar de metal, care constituia una dintre piesele armurii romane. 2. Ornament… …   Dicționar Român

  • Pectoral — Pec to*ral (p[e^]k t[ o]*ral), a. [L. pectoralis, fr. pectus, oris the breast; cf. F. pectoral.] 1. Of or pertaining to the breast, or chest; as, the pectoral muscles. [1913 Webster] 2. Relating to, or good for, diseases of the chest or lungs; as …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • pectoral — pectoral, ale 1. (pè kto ral, ra l ) adj. 1°   Qui concerne la poitrine.    Croix pectorale, celle que les évêques portent sur la poitrine.    Terme d anatomie. Muscles pectoraux, ou, substantivement, les pectoraux, muscles qui s attachent à la… …   Dictionnaire de la Langue Française d'Émile Littré

  • Pectoral — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda La palabra Pectoral, del latín pectoralis (plural pectorales) se puede referir a lo relativo al pecho, a la cavidad pectoral. También a los músculos pectorales: Pectoral mayor Pectoral menor Comúnmente se llama… …   Wikipedia Español

  • pectoral — m. anat. Cada uno de los dos músculos pectorales (el mayor y menor) que se hallan situados en la parte anterior y superior de tórax. El pectoral mayor hace girar el brazo hacia dentro, mientras que el pectoral mayor lleva el hombro hacia arriba y …   Diccionario médico

  • pectoral — adjetivo,sustantivo masculino 1. [Medicamento] que es beneficioso para el pecho o que combate la tos: jarabe pectoral. 2. Del pecho o relacionado con él: cavidad pectoral, músculo pectoral. Esta chica tiene que fortalecer los pectorales. En el… …   Diccionario Salamanca de la Lengua Española

  • Pectoral — Pectoral, from the Latin pectoralis (plural pectorales ), pertaining to the breast/chest , can refer to:* Pectoral cross, a cross worn on the chest * a decorative, usually jeweled version of a gorget * Pectoralis major muscle * Pectoralis minor… …   Wikipedia

  • pectoral — (Del lat. pectoralis). 1. adj. Perteneciente o relativo al pecho. Cavidad pectoral. 2. Útil o provechoso para el pecho. U. t. c. s. m.) 3. m. Cruz que por insignia pontifical llevan sobre el pecho los obispos y otros prelados. 4. Racional del… …   Diccionario de la lengua española

  • pectoral — [pek′tə rəl] adj. [< L pectoralis < pectus (gen. pectoris), breast] 1. of or located in or on the chest or breast 2. worn on the chest or breast [a bishop s pectoral cross] 3. influenced by or resulting from personal feelings; subjective n …   English World dictionary

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