Manifestation of Conscience

Manifestation of Conscience
Manifestation of Conscience
A practice in many religious orders and congregations, by which subjects manifest the state of their conscience to the superior, in order that the latter may know them intimately, and thus further their spiritual progress

Catholic Encyclopedia. . 2006.

Manifestation of Conscience
    Manifestation of Conscience
     Catholic_Encyclopedia Manifestation of Conscience
    A practice in many religious orders and congregations, by which subjects manifest the state of their conscience to the superior, in order that the latter may know them intimately, and thus further their spiritual progress. This practice has been employed by those devoted to the ascetical life from the early centuries of the Church, and Cassian's "Conferences" make frequent mention of it as in common use among the Fathers of the Desert. It is part of the domestic and paternal government of religious institutes and of itself requires no ecclesiastical jurisdiction in the superiors, and hence such a function may be annexed to the office of a lay, or even female, superior. The knowledge of the state of soul acquired by manifestation of conscience enables the superior to determine the expediency of the frequency of communion, what spiritual reading is to be selected, what penances to be practised, what counsel to be given concerning doubts, difficulties, and temptations. Primarily, the object of this manifestation is the good of the individual subject, though, secondarily, it also affects the good of the whole religious institute. The superior cannot indeed make use of this knowledge for government in such a way as to inflict any loss or grievous inconvenience on the subject, and thus reveal the secret knowledge he has obtained, but he can dispose even external matters for the interior good of the subject, who is presumed to tacitly consent to such arrangement. The secret must, however, be kept inviolably, and hence a subject may object to any external use whatever of the revelations he has made to the superior. He can, likewise, if he wishes, amplify the right of the superior to use it. It is to be noted that this manifestation of conscience differs from sacramental confession both in end and in object, as also from judicial and paternal investigation.
    Although, by the nature of things, the power of receiving manifestation of conscience is not incompatible with the state of lay, even female, superiors, yet by the decree "Quemadmodum", of 17 Dec., 1890, Pope Leo XIII considerably limited the powers of the latter. The decree says: "His Holiness annuls, abrogates, and declares of no force whatever hereafter, all regulations whatsoever in the Constitutions of pious societies and institutes of women who make either simple or solemn vows, as well as in those of men of the purely lay order (even though the said constitutions should have received from the Holy See approbation in whatsoever form, even that which is termed most special), in this one point, in which those constitutions regard the secret manifestation of conscience in whatsoever manner or under whatsoever name. He therefore seriously enjoins on all superiors, male and female, of such institutes, congregations, and societies absolutely to cancel and expunge altogether from their respective Constitutions, Directories, and Manuals all the aforesaid regulations." The pope, having thus abolished compulsory manifestation of conscience, goes on to forbid superiors, either directly or indirectly, to induce their subjects to such manifestation, and commands that such superiors be denounced to higher superiors if they violate this decree, or in case of the superior-general to the Sacred Congregation of Bishops and Regulars (now the Congregation of the Religious Orders). The decree states, however, that any voluntary manifestation on the part of subjects, for the purpose of obtaining help in doubts and difficulties, and to further their spiritual progress, is not prohibited. Neither does this decree forbid the ordinary domestic or paternal interrogation which is part of all religious government, nor the solicitude of a superior in inquiring into the manifest troubles or affliction of a subject. The pope commands that the decree "Quemadmodum" be translated into the vernacular and inserted into the Constitutions of those religious institutes which it affects, and that it be read publicly once a year.
    VERMEERSCH, De Religiosis Institutis, I (Bruges, 1902); TAUNTON, The Law of the Church (St. Louis, 1906), s. v.
    Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter Dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ

The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII. — New York: Robert Appleton Company. . 1910.

Catholic encyclopedia.

Игры ⚽ Нужен реферат?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Manifestation of Conscience — is a practice, in religious orders, of making one s superior, such as an abbot or prior, aware of the state of one s conscience. This is so the superior may know them intimately, and thus further their spiritual progress. It is not a form of… …   Wikipedia

  • CONSCIENCE — Le mot latin conscientia est naturellement décomposé en «cum scientia». Cette étymologie suggère non seulement la connaissance de l’objet par le sujet, mais que cet objet fait toujours référence au sujet lui même. Le terme allemand Bewusstsein… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • manifestation — [ manifɛstasjɔ̃ ] n. f. • v. 1200; lat. ecclés. manifestatio 1 ♦ Fait, moyen par lequel Dieu se manifeste, devient sensible. 2 ♦ (1749) Action ou manière de manifester, de se manifester. ⇒ expression. « Nul ne doit être inquiété pour ses opinions …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Manifestation de la religion — Religion Une religion est un ensemble de rites, croyances généralement théistes[Note 1], composé de règles (éthiques ou pratiques), de récits, de symboles ou de dogmes adoptés comme conviction par une société, un groupe ou une personne. Par… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Conscience — Not to be confused with consciousness. For other uses, see Conscience (disambiguation). Vincent van Gogh, 1890. Kröller Müller Museum. The Good Samaritan (after Delacroix). Conscience is an aptitude, faculty, intuition or judgment of the …   Wikipedia

  • conscience — (kon si an s ) s. f. 1°   Sentiment de soi même ou mode de la sensibilité générale qui nous permet de juger de notre existence : c est ce que les métaphysiciens nomment la conscience du moi. •   Sitôt que nous avons la conscience de nos… …   Dictionnaire de la Langue Française d'Émile Littré

  • Pleine conscience — La pleine conscience (parfois également appelée attention juste, samma sati en sanscrit) est une expression dérivée de l’enseignement de Siddhartha Gautama et désignant la conscience vigilante de ses propres pensées, actions et motivations. Elle… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • The Sacrament of Penance —     The Sacrament of Penance     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► The Sacrament of Penance     Penance is a sacrament of the New Law instituted by Christ in which forgiveness of sins committed after baptism is granted through the priest s absolution to… …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • PSYCHOLOGIE — Interpréter un rêve; analyser les processus par lesquels un rat, en un certain nombre d’essais successifs, parvient à apprendre une trajectoire arbitraire ou la manœuvre d’un appareil fournissant de la nourriture quand un signal est allumé;… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Woman — • The position of woman in society has given rise to a discussion which, is known under the name of the woman question Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Woman     Woman      …   Catholic encyclopedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”